Carbon Black Reinforcement of Rubbers
Part5. New Understanding of the Unsolved Phenomena in the Carbon Reinforcement
Yoshihide FUKAHORI
Polymer Engineering Design
Nippon Gomu Kyokaishi,(2004),77(9),317-323 General Review in Japanese

In part 4, the author proposed a new concept with a new interface model for the carbon black reinforcement of rubbers. Here, the discussion is focused on how we should understand the typical phenomena, essential but unsolved so far in the reinforcement of rubbers with carbon blacks.
The formation of the super network structure consisting of the linkage of dispersed carbon blacks with strands of oriented molecules in SH layer generates the quite high stress under large extension and the corresponding high tensile strength of the body. Great hysteresis energy given in rubbers highly filled with fine carbon blacks under large extension is composed of the apparent hysteresis energy (about 40 %) due to the buckling of the extended strands and viscoelastic energy (about 60 %). Energetic behavior of the carbon black-filled rubbers results from the energetic characteristics of SH layer, the easier molecular sliding generating the lower stress at higher temperature.

Carbon black, Reinforcement, Rubber, Super network structure, Buckling