|Latest Trend of Numerical Simulation Methods for the Stress Softening of Rubber
Mechanical Design & Analysis Corporation, Nagoya Office, Naka-ku, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan,
Nippon Gomu Kyokaishi,(2009),82(11),478-482 General Review in Japanese
Many rubber-like materials consist of a cross-linked elastomeric substance with a dispersed small carbon particles as fillers. A piece of filler loaded rubber subjected to a series of loadings typically displays pronounced stress softening associated with damage. This stress softening phenomenon is referred to as the Mullins effect. The effects of strain history on the stresses and the formulation of constitutive models for filled and unfilled elastomers have been a particular focus of attention during the last few years. In this general remark, some representative damage functions are explicated through general purpose FEM programs. Furthermore, the anisotropic Mullins effect is indicated by biaxial experimental cyclic test. The numerical model of anisotropic Mullins effect, eventually, is expounded, and its numerical analysis is illustrated by using user-subroutine on Marc.
Mullins Effect, Stress Softening, Anisotropic Damage, Micro Sphere Model